Sunday, September 15, 2019

Honour Is Shakespeare’s “Much Ado About Nothing”

When we look closely at the romance of Beatrice and Benedick, we see the problems that a rational lover has in putting aside his concept of honour in order to love a woman and Shakespeare cleverly contrasts this relationship with our idealistic lover Claudio, who is incapable of rejecting the restrictions that honour places on a man. In a parallel construction we see through the relationship that the boorish Claudio has with the docile Hero that for love to flourish it must reject chivalric notions of honour. The social hierarchy of Messina, is a very class conscious one and being witty is almost a full time occupation for many of its inhabitants. Playing practical jokes and tricks upon each other is a subtle way of maintaining the strict codes of conduct and among the most successful and benevolent of the deceptions practised are the parallel practical jokes played on Beatrice and Benedick in order to trick each of them into admitting their love for one another. In their first encounter, we see Beatrice and Benedick using their superior intellects to ridicule each other. Benedick warns her to ‘keep her ladyship’ and she lashes back with insults around his physicality suggesting that he is so ugly that ‘scratching his face could not make it worse’. Benedick uses his wit to shield himself from her barbs, hiding his true feelings and pretending to enjoy his bachelor existence when actually it is a mechanism for his safety. Benedick presents one face to the world in order to be accepted by the society that judges him and it is this society that acknowledges his wit, but underpinning Benedick’s wit is his distaste for the superficial values that Messinian society is built upon. His ironic attitude towards both himself and the world he is held captive by is apparent in his soliloquy, where he weighs up the discrepancy between how the world sees him and how he sees himself. The repartee between Beatrice and Benedick is sometimes blunt and crude, sometimes elaborate and self conscious. Puns, similes, metaphors, and paradoxes are all brought into play in their continual game of mutual insults and it is this aggressive verbal battle which pushes Beatrice and Benedick to the foreground of the play. Being in love is a game for fools and Benedick vows to never be ‘such a fool’. Benedick persuades himself that by staying away from Beatrice and denying himself any notions of marriage, he is a confirmed misogymist, that he is the stronger individual and has control over his life instead of living for another human being and risking becoming a hopelessly ‘in love’ lover. Benedick views women in society as somehow predatory, wanting to ‘capture’ a man and contain him in marriage, only to torture him with subsequent betrayal. However when faced with a woman such as Beatrice, who proclaims herself equally contemptuous of marria ge and for the same reasons, Benedick’s role begins to fall apart, which is where Benedick faces the biggest battle in his life, as he fights to hold on to his notions of male honour. But no matter how hard he tries he cannot frame for himself a separate language of love and as a result he and Beatrice construct a loving relationship which is as much of a sparring match as their enmity, once Benedick gives up his notions of male honour. In stark contrast to Benedick and Beatrice, Shakespeare’s ideal lovers, Claudio and Hero, ‘believe’ they are in love with each other, but we quickly see that when put to the test this love is superficial and lacks the true acknowledgement of each other’s individuality needed to sustain it. Their love for each other, although seemingly sincere, dissipates at the first obstacle and doubt sees one quick to accuse the other of adultery. For Beatrice and Benedick however, their jokes are the means whereby they can resist the kind of love-relationship exemplified by Hero and Claudio. In the end the ‘happy-ending’ which sees Hero married off to Claudio is one fraught with contradictions, for this conventional relationship, founded as it is on romantic love, which they exemplify, has been severely satirised by Shakespeare. By presenting the relationship between Beatrice and Benedick as real and not idealistic, we see the fragility of an idealised, romantic love such as the one Claudio has with Hero and its tendency to collapse into loathing and disgust becomes all too apparent. Appropriately the play ends not with Claudio and Hero whose strict adherence to an unbending code of honour temporarily fragments their relationship, but with Beatrice and Benedick who overcome both the male code of honour and society’s expectations to love and accept each other for their individual selves. There is a relationship built on mutual trust, respect and acceptance and proof that Love must be truthful to be sustained.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Research questionnaires Essay

The ways in which the experiments presented above differ is in regard to the setting in which they are conducted. Some are laboratory experiments that take place in a setting created by researchers, and others such as field experiments are conducted in a participants natural setting. Additional ways for communication researchers to conduct there studies would be research questionnaires which ask participants to write their answers to questions researchers pose and panel studies which are surveys in which responses from the same people are obtained to learn how their beliefs, attitudes, and/or behaviors change. There are particular strengths and weaknesses of each type of experiment done. Panel studies for instance allow, â€Å"researchers to be more confident about attributing patterns of cause in effect in survey data,† (Dominick 415) and they are more reliable. Another strength of the panel study is the benefit of, â€Å"longitudinal observation of the individual through time,† (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panel_study), and the compilation of information at a nice pace makes the withdraw inaccuracies condensed. On the weakness side of these studies, panel members cannot be replaced, so panel studies are threatened by participant morality which means that there are potential problems due to the loss of respondents. Such a substantial loss of respondents can compromise the results of the study. Other weaknesses include that, â€Å"panel †¦ {studies} are expensive to conduct, are sensitive to attrition and take a long time to generate useful data,† (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panel_study). Another way communication researcher’s conduct a study is by using a questionnaire. Researchers using questionnaires communicate via written messages and usually do not converse with respondents. There are many strength’s of questionnaires; one would be that they are not very expensive. This type of research reaches large audiences and allows them to respond at their convenience. They require fewer personnel and can be administered consistently by different researchers, since the same written form, asking the same questions, may be used in exactly the same way time after time. Questionnaires minimize potential influence of outside events as all people receive questionnaires at the same time. They also increase respondent’s  anonymity and increase accuracy of data because respondents record their own data. Nevertheless, such unvarying replies might aggravate researchers. Questionnaires are also restricted by the fact that respondents are required to read the que stions and respond to them. Therefore, for some demographic groups, conducting a survey by questionnaire may not be realistic. An additional way for communication researchers to conduct investigating is by laboratory experiments. A laboratory setting allows researchers to, â€Å"Manipulate independent variables,† (Hocking 206-207), easily, randomly assign research participants to conditions, control for the effects of unrelated influences, and measure participant’s behavior cleanly, especially there communication behavior. Laboratory experiments help researchers conduct highly controlled full experiments. Lab experiments â€Å"are useful because they help establish causality,† (Dominick 416). Laboratory experiments allow researchers to exercise high control, but often, â€Å"they can minimize external validity,† (Hocking 204), because participants may respond differently in laboratories than in natural settings. The last communication tool researcher’s use is field experiments. Field experiments cannot randomly assign research participants to conditions or manipulate variables as can a laboratory experiment. But they can conduct full experiments. This means that that communication researchers can conduct there experiment in a natural setting, â€Å"which maximizes external validity,† (Hocking 206). Field experiments can also establish causality as do laboratory experiments. Wrapping up, the quality of experimental research is determined not by where it takes place, but the amount of control researcher’s exercise. Whether laboratory, field, panel or questionnaires, communication researchers, â€Å"exercise high control when they are able to manipulate independent variables,† (Hocking 211), randomly assign participants to create equivalent conditions and control for the effects of extraneous influences. Bibliography Dominick, Joseph R. The Dynamics of Mass Communication. 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. 393-437. Hocking, John E., John W. Stacks, and Steven T. McDermott. Communication Research. 3rd Ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon, 2002. 200-215. â€Å"Panel Study.† Wikipedia.Org. Aug. 2006. 30 Dec. 2006 .

Growth of a Business Essay

When a business grows in size it will need more staff to carry out:- *Existing jobs e.g. in a chocolate factory it may need more people to operate the production lines it it moves from 4 to 5 lines. *New jobs e.g. if a company expands to overseas it will need to recruit staff who are capable of speaking foreign languages. When existing jobs are being expanded, human resource specialists simply need to copy existing practice on a larger scale. They can do this by interviewing more people and advertising more widely etc. More detailed thought is needed if new jobs are to be created. This is even more important if the jobs being created are different to the jobs that already exist within the company. If Norwich Airport they would need to employ a lot more security guards. This would be due to the increased numbers of passengers going through the airport and the terminals. If Norwich Airport started to fly to new destinations they would need new staff who could speak the language of the country. They could do this training their existing staff to speak the languages or they could recruit externally people already with the capability to speak those languages. CHANGING JOB ROLES WITHIN THE BUSINESS In recent years there has been a decline in standardised jobs. The change of a job role is usually down to changing and advancing technology. This involves employees taking more responsibility in decision making. This is known as empowerment. The development of new jobs requires a lot of research. Looking at the best practice in an industry often does this. Sometimes it is done by looking at the development of new jobs particularly in the USA. FILLING VACANCIES CREATED BY RESIGNATION, RETIREMENT OR DISMISSAL Vacancies come about for a number of reasons. This could include retirement, dismissal, expansion or even death. When some body moves on it is normally necessary to replace them. Before this is done the company will need to decide if it would be best to get a employee similar to the previous one or if it would be best to to get someone with new skills because the job has moved on and more skills are required to carry the job out properly. In some cases this has effected Norwich Airport. In some extreme cases they have had to dismiss employees who have lied about foreign languages they can speak. When Norwich Airport first opened, they only offered flights to a few select countries. But since then they have expanded and a far wider range of flights are now offered. With this they have a lot more people using them rather than using the larger London airports or the near by Luton airport. With the extra money they are still thinking of expanding even more in the near future. In some cases the job that has become available does not always need to be filled. There are amny factors that Norwich Airport takes into account before deciding whether or not a replacement is required. They will always consider: – * Is there still a need for that job? * Do the benefits derived from this job justify the total cost of filling it? E.g. advertising, salary, training etc. * Is it essential that the vacancy is filled immediately? * Rather than employing a new member of staff would it be best to reorganise the workload within the company/department to cover the position. * Will the job need to be full or part time? * Will there still be the need for this job in 12 or 18 months time? Is the post likely to be affected by current or future organisational changes or different work methods. Will the job therefore be temporary or permanent? And for this reason will there need to be a fixed term contract. INTERNAL PROMOTION There is always the opportunity for internal promotion. This is a good form of motivation as it gives employees something to aim for within the organisation. This should make the employee try to impress in his current job rather than looking else where outside of the company. But if an employee is to be promoted, then someone else would have to be employed to cover their previous position. It is extremely important that the right candidate is selected. The recruitment process can be extremely costly. To set up an effective recruitment process it takes a great deal of time. Once a job has become vacant it is very important that the company should then analyse the job. This is when they will decide what will be entailed in the available job. How to advertise, sift through the applications, checking which applications best meet the criteria, interviewing candidates and then the most important, selecting the best candidate. When a job becomes available at Norwich airport they decide whether to recruit internally or externally. From our meeting I discovered that 50% of the time they will recruit internally only, and the other 50% they will recruit internally and externally. They often decide to recruit internally only because they can save a lot of money. They save a lot on advertising costs and it normally takes them less time to train the employee if they already have some experience working within the airport. Often they have noticed that when an employee knows that there is the chance of promotion it enhances their rate and quality of work because it acts as a motivator. However they have also found disadvantages when recruiting within the company. They have to replace the person who has been promoted, this means that they have ended up advertising for two jobs instead of just the one. In the past they have had arguments and disputes or another employee has been upset that someone else has been promoted instead of them. However, from our meeting I understood that their better employees in the past were ones who had been promoted as a pose to the ones who had been employed externally. This has always been the case when they have been first employed because they have a better understanding of the business. NEW POST Sometimes rather than a current post becoming available a new post all together may become vacant. But before the new post is confirmed it must be approved in the companies budget. This may not be the case and a supplementary budget will have to be applied for. If this is not the case then the recruitment process will be unable to go ahead. There must be available work space and enough available equipment for the new person. If all of the above are ok, then Norwich Airport decide on a realistic start date. When this is decided upon, the airport would work backwards from this date to plan each stage of recruitment. Below is a realistic time plan for Norwich Airport if they were to advertise externally. A typical time plan would be for about 3 months. 21 January – complete staff vacancy request form and hand into human resources department. 22 January – write job description and interview report form, allowing time for the approval of the line manager. Pepare advert and job particulars. HUMAN RESOURCES MUST BE NOTIFIED THAT THE RECRUITMENT PROCESS HAS BEEN STARTED! 2 February – send the above papers to human resources. 9 February – if appropriate the job will be evaluated. Human resources will book space and send advert to media. 16 February – the advert will appear. Interview dates and panel members must be decided upon. 18 February – applicants respond. 4 March – closing date for response from potential applicants. 7 March – final candidates are shortlisted. 8 March – candidates are contacted to arrange interviews. 15/16 March – interviews take place. 17 March – the post is offered to the successful candidate. 17 April – after one month notice period the candidate would start.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Writing As Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Writing As - Assignment Example His theory is based on the simple premise that population growth is more exponential than food growth. As a result, it is necessary to adopt checks that will regulate population control by aligning it with food growth. The similarity between Malthus’ and Smith’s rationales lies in a belief that population regulates itself naturally. Consequently, it is not necessary to employ man-made measures to control population growth. In this regard, Smith reasons that the liberal reward of labor naturally limits population growth while Malthus rejects his proposal of a preventive check and leans towards a positive check (natural population-reducing disasters like famine, poor living and working conditions, conflict, and disease (Ness & Ciment, 2014). In conclusion, it is safe to say that Smith and Malthus subscribe to the Darwinian concept of survival for the fittest and natural population control methods. It is also logical to infer that both authors’ objectives in making their arguments concerning population are the same. What both scholars are insinuating is that population growth is a self-regulating phenomenon that is better left to nature than manipulated using human

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Research Paper Example He asks Molly, who is his backup, to get back to work as she was engaged in a chat even after lunchtime. Molly resorts to chatting claiming that Dan cannot boss her around. He thinks of reporting this to the floor supervisor, Mr. Davis who at that time was reviewing low performance of his employees and was thinking how to get the employees to become efficient. Evaluation of the Scenario Promoting Cultural Diversity   In the given case, Karishima has a different cultural background and is having problem in adjusting. Similarly all the other employees are having a problem in adjusting with her because of her accent and other differences such as her inability to dress up the way other call centre employees do. The management should inform the existing employees of a new /foreign employee being hired. This is because it will prepare them to face the differences. Moreover, the employee being hired should be trained a little. This can be done by giving the employee an orientation for abo ut 2 weeks at least. In this way, the employee won’t be working formally but will get to know people at work and will start communicating with them. The strategies for cultural diversity are based on complexity theory. Solving Problems   One obvious problem in the case above is that, there are many problems but apparently no one is trying to reach solutions. Susan has a problem with her co worker, Karishma but she does not take the case to her supervisor rather she complains about it to her friend and instead of trying to reach a solution she laughs it off with her. Joy does not appreciate what her colleagues are gossiping about related to Karishima and wants to correct them but concludes otherwise leaves to go back to work in a sour mood. Even here she does not try to reach a solution for the problem; rather she ignores it and spoils her mood. Whenever a problem is observed, employees should be asked to discuss the problem with the management or with the senior staff. More over, they should be encouraged to discuss the problem on a horizontal level as well. This will help employees to learn more about each other and will bring them closer to one another. This strategy is based on Cognitive resource theory, which states that a leader obtains effective group performance by first making effective plans, decisions and strategies, and then communication them through directive behavior (Robinson, pg 351, 1998). Furthermore, the head should communicate with those working under him so that he can learn about problems faced by the lower staff thus becoming able to solve their problems efficiently. This can be based on University of Michigan Studies which state that there is an employee oriented leader and a task oriented leader. In this case, the leader should be employee oriented so that he can emphasize on interpersonal relations (Robinson, pg 357, 1998). Motivating Employees In the given case, employees are not motivated. They just work for the sake of mone y or because it is necessary for them. However, it is important that employees at a workplace are motivated or else they lose interest in work and are not able to perform their best. In this case, Mr. Davis is reviewing low employee performance and he knows it is because the employees are not motivated. Employee motivation is imperative for an organization. Employees can be motivated intrinsically as well extrinsically. In order to give them extrinsic motivation, the management can announce

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Research Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Research - Assignment Example These include audit trails, checks in times of coding, correct referencing and results evaluation (Munhall, 2012). You decide to conduct a qualitative study aimed at determining the influence of life stressors on graduate nursing education. You plan to collect the data using an Internet survey. How do you collect qualitative data using an Internet survey? Would the data be credible? Why or why not? Collection of qualitative data will be possible via use of appropriate internet software plus questionnaire templates (Munhall, 2012). There will be a questionnaire provided via the internet that participants will fill and submit. The questionnaires are to have a certain number of questions, which the participants will complete in conformance to the instructions. First, there should be recruitment for respondents willing to join in the survey. This is possible through advertisements in various sites such as yahoo and Google (Munhall, 2012). Offering prizes or incentives for participants would encourage several people to join the exercise. The data will be credible if the selected responds are eligible for the exercise (Munhall, 2012). This is because the respondents required are those experienced on stressors. What are sources of qualitative research problems? Identify an issue from your clinical practice that could be studied using qualitative method. Why do you think qualitative method is appropriate to study the problem? Research problems emanate from various sources, for example; the skeptical nature of individuals each day provides a research topic (Houser, 2009). Qualitative research issues may stem from practical aspects, for instance, in nursing a skeptical individual may develop a question that concerns nurses in the provision of health care (Houser, 2009). In clinical practice, an issue such as the problems encountered by nurses as they deliver care to patients is suitable

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

The Age of Global Communications Technology and a Cause for Worry for Essay

The Age of Global Communications Technology and a Cause for Worry for the Subsequent Spread of Westernization - Essay Example It is a factor that assists in determining the speed with which human beings are able to grow and develop on a personal as well as societal basis. The internet is one such form of global communication technology in the world today. Over the last few decades it has spread all over the world massively, wiring almost every corner of the world and helping in spreading information and resources to every nook and cranny. This paper is a reflection of how this same global communication technology, in the form of the internet, has helped to spread westernization all over the world within the span of a very short period, how this spreading of the western culture has been affecting various parts of people’s lives, namely, culture, politics, business, science and technology; and whether or not this very spread of westernization, affecting all these portions of a person’s life, is a cause for worry for the rest of the world or not. The world has become almost like a small village, with almost each and every person connected to the other. All kinds of information can be found online with the help of the internet. In the last few decades, the internet has also become a very common and affordable phenomenon taking over every person’s household; most people look for the feature of having internet on their cell phones, smart phones, personal computers, laptops, and any other aspect of their life that may have the option of being connected to the World Wide Web consortium. Information from various kinds of libraries, government agencies, NGOs, offices etc, from all around the world can be available easily on a person’s private laptop with the click of the mouse; such resources help in researching, writing as well as gaining more and more knowledge on vast topics. Sitting in one’s bedroom, a person can conduct meetings worldwide through video conferencing, play multi player games with people from around the world, social network with friends and family and do so much more. (Huntington, Samuel) The internet is thus that part of the global communication technology which does not restrict a person from knowing more about anything. The internet is also mostly free to anyone wanting to make use of it, and thus its appeal grows even more. However, the question remains, has the widespread use of this part of technology led to the spreading of western culture, and if it has, then is this westernization a cause for worry for the rest of humanity? Westernization is the adoption of western thoughts, ideas and beliefs, in terms of science, technology, industry, politics and culture. It also includes aspects like religion, philosophy and anything else that includes the adoption and usage of foreign thoughts coming from the West. It is thus the process of inculcating values and ideologies from the west into an indigenous thought process. Westernization basically comes from the acceptance and implementation of ideals from Europe and Amer ica. Since these regions have been known to dominate the world for a good period of time since the modern world took its course, they have been said to have left behind their values and way of living life in the countries and colonies they had captured back then. Most countries around the world have been under the rule of Europe for a very long time in the past. Others have been a part of American cultures and ideals before they broke free and started forming their own governments and democracies. However, despite breaking away from these parent overriding rules, they still retain a vast amount of culture from them. For example, India was ruled